Diyarbakır City Walls
Sur District, in the centre of Diyarbakır, has an intense history, starting from the Hurrians through to the Ottomans. The most important of their works are the walls that surround the city, featuring turrets with a bird’s-eye view.
The Diyarbakır City Walls (Diyarbakır Surları), which are on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list, are considered a monument and symbol of the city. The walls surrounded the city and consisted of two parts, the Inner Castle and the Outer Castle. In terms of age and height, the Diyarbakır City Walls are first among the world’s citadels. Diyarbakır Castle (Diyarbakır Kalesi), almost all of which has survived to the present day, has been standing for about 5,000 years. It has a spectacular solemnity with a width of between three and five meters, standing between 11 and 21 meters high. The 5,500-meter-long Diyarbakır City Walls are crowned with 82 bastions draped around the neck of the city like a necklace. It has the characteristics of an open-air museum, featuring 63 separate inscriptions and countless figures and reliefs dating from antiquity.
Hevsel Gardens (Hevsel Bahçeleri), set between the Diyarbakır City Walls and the Tigris River, extend from Mardinkapı to the On Gözlü (Ten Arches) Bridge in the west and Yenikapı in the east. This is a region of first-class agricultural land, thanks to the fertile alluvial soils carried by the Tigris River. The total size of the Hevsel Gardens, which is on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list, is approximately 4,000 decares, and in this area vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, green onion, parsley, cress, cabbage, radish, chard, arugula, tomato, pepper, eggplant, beans and zucchini are grown, along with trees bearing walnuts, figs, apricots, plums, cherries, mulberries and peaches. Another aspect of Hevsel Gardens is that it is a bird paradise hosting nearly 100 species of large and small birds; 79 species, including the European robin, Eastern olivaceous warbler, dove, tree pipit, red-backed shrike, common whitethroat and bee-eaters are observed in Hevsel Gardens. The willow warbler population grows during the spring, while the goldfinch lives in Hevsel Gardens throughout the year.
İçkale (the Inner Castle), which is separated from the city by an arc-shaped wall in the northeast corner of the walled area, is like a miniature of the Outer Walls (Dışkale) with the walls around it. According to studies regarding the date of its construction, İçkale, which underwent significant changes during the rule of the Artukids, took its final form under Ottoman rule in the 16th century. The Inner Castle has a total of four gates, called Saray, Oğrun, Küpeli, and Fetih. The gates of Fetih and Oğrun open to the outside, while the Saray and Küpeli gates open to the city centre. Each of the Inner Castle bastions, of which there are 18 in total, are equipped with different functions. The bastions, which were also used as a prison, and as storage for military equipment, weapons and ammunition, and grain and food, underwent significant changes in the Artukid and Ottoman periods.
Inner Castle (İçkale)
Diyarbakır, an important cultural city, was considered a centre of cultural and economic activities for great civilizations throughout every period of history. The city centre was established at the point called İçkale (Inner Castle) in BCE 6000 at the Amida Mound (Viran Hill). Findings from the İçkale, as well as its location, suggest that the area functioned continuously as the city’s administrative centre throughout almost every period of its history. The Amida Mound (Amida Höyüğü), the Artuklu Palace (Artuklu Sarayı), Hz. Süleyman Mosque and the Tombs of 27 Companions (Hz. Süleyman Cami ve 27 Sahabe Türbesi), Saint George Church (Aziz George Kilisesi), the Lion Fountain (Aslanlı Çeşme) and the Artuklu Arch (Artuklu Kemeri) – now serving as the Archaeology Museum (Arkeoloji Müzesi) – are all in İçkale, as are the Restoration and Conservation Regional Laboratory (Restorasyon ve Konservasyon Bölge Laboratuvarı), Governorship Admission Office (Valilik Kabul Makamı), Gendarmery Building (Jandarma Binası) (used as a cafeteria), the Old Prison (Eski Cezaevi), Army Corps Building (Kolordu Binası), Courthouse A and Courthouse B Buildings (Adliye A ve B Binaları) and the Atatürk Museum (Atatürk Müzesi).
İçkale Diyarbakır Archaeology Museum
The city’s first museum, the İçkale Diyarbakır Archaeology Museum (İçkale Diyarbakır Arkeoloji Müzesi) was opened in 1934 in the Zinciriye (Senceriye) Madrasa (Zinciriye Medresesi), near the Grand Mosque (Ulu Cami). The museum exhibits work dating from the foundations of modern civilization in Diyarbakır 12,400 years ago.
It is believed that a citadel was built for the first time in İçkale during the BCE 3rd millennium, in the Hurrian Period. The Amida Mound (Amida Höyüğü), also located here, is the first point of the city’s establishment and has been inhabited since the BCE 6th millennium.
Zerzevan Castle and Temple of Mithras
Zerzevan Castle (Zerzevan Kalesi) and the underground Temple of Mithras (Mithras Tapınağı) are in the Çınar District, 48 km from Diyarbakır. Set along the Diyarbakır-Mardin highway, the history of Zerzevan Castle – a Roman-era border garrison – dates from the Assyrian Period (BCE 882-611). The castle was used continuously until the conquest by the Islamic armies in 639 and features both above-ground structures and a large underground city. Within this most well-preserved military settlement in the world also lies the last Temple of Mithras ever found. The first temple on the eastern border of Rome, the structure was designed for the worship of Mithra, a sun god and a god of justice and war.
Surrounded by 1,200 meters of 15-meter-high walls, the southern area of the garrison features structures such as a watchtower and defence tower, a church, an administration building, an arsenal and a rock altar. In the north are streets, villas, and residences, as well as cisterns, an underground church and an underground shelter, and the Temple of Mithras. Outside the walls are the channels that supplied water to the settlement, along with basins and quarries. There is also a necropolis with rock tombs and vaulted tombs. Zerzevan Castle and Temple of Mithras are on UNESCO’s Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Türkiye.
The Amida Mound (Amida Höyük), is in İçkale, in the Diyarbakır city centre. It is the site of the first settlement in Diyarbakır and is both the administrative centre and the heart of Diyarbakır. Excavations of the site revealed that human settlement in the Amida Mound started around BCE 6100 (Late Neolithic-Early Chalcolithic Period). The Amida Mound is a rare example of a site that has hosted human civilization uninterruptedly from antiquity to the present day.
The Amida Mound holds the distinction of serving as the administrative centre of the Diyarbakır region since its establishment. As the heart of Diyarbakır, the Amida Mound is also important for housing the Artuklu Palace (Artuklu Sarayı), where the first robots in the world were built and functioned.
On Gözlü Bridge (Dicle Bridge)
Also known as the Dicle Bridge (Dicle Köprüsü) or the Silvan Bridge, the On Gözlü Bridge (On Gözlü Köprü) was constructed during the reign of Nizamüddin Nasr in the Marwanid period between 1065 and 1067, per its inscription. The ten-arched bridge was built entirely of hard volcanic basalt stone and rubble stone. It is 18 meters long and around six meters wide. Engraved into the basalt stone next to the inscription is a relief featuring a right-facing lion relief in a frame. Some small marks can be found on adjacent stones, which feature the camel bridge body of the lion figure. Over time, the bridge underwent destruction from enemy armies but was later repaired. Today, there is a restaurant serving the city’s distinguished flavours and local cuisine, as well as a cafe section where iwan nights are held – this area attracts both domestic and foreign tourists.
The bridge is 22 km east of Silvan, over the Batman Creek. It was built by Temür-tash, son of Artuq Bey, during the Artukid period between 1147 and 1148. The bridge consists of three segments of different lengths, extending in an east-west direction in broken lines.
Constructed with yellow limestone, the Malabadi Bridge (Malabadi Köprüsü) is the longest spanned stone arch bridge in the world with its pointed arch of 40.86 meters – larger even than the dome of Hagia Sophia. The bridge is about 281 meters long, about seven meters wide, and almost 25 meters high from the keystone to the low water level. The other two arches are about three meters wide. bridges with human, sun, and lion reliefs.
On either side of the bridge’s main arch are rooms where caravans and their passengers could stay, especially during difficult winter travel. There are various figures and decorations on the south part of the bridge. Malabadi Bridge is on UNESCO’s Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Türkiye.
Other Historical Bridges
The Devegeçidi Bridge (Devegeçidi Köprüsü) was built during the Artukid period. There are wooded areas around the bridge, suitable for picnics. The Haburman Bridge (Haburman Köprüsü) was also built during the Artukid period.
Artuklu Palace (Artuklu Sarayı)
Diyarbakır Artuklu Palace (Artuklu Sarayı), located on the Amida Mound (Amida Höyük)), was rebuilt between 1200 and 1222 on the foundations of a destroyed Roman-era palace. Artuklu Palace, a centre of scientific studies during the Artukid Period, was later used by the states established in Amid (Diyarbakır). The palace, was abandoned in the 18th century, in the Ottoman period, and fell into disrepair due to neglect.
Evliya Çelebi, who visited Amid in the 1650s, described the palace as having 150 rooms and many banquet halls; that each vizier built living quarters, a hammam and a pool, and that the palace became larger, as if decorated with layers. Çelebi also noted that the windows and balconies of the palace had beautiful views; all overlooked the Tigris River, the Tigris Desert and the Karatepe Valley.
The Artukid Arch entryway, in the central part of İçkale, is about 10 meters wide. A large inscription on the arch indicates that it was built in 1206, during the reign of Sultan Mahmut, the Sultan of Artukid, at the same time as the Artuklu Palace. The arched entrance symbolizes and emphasizes the power of the administration, rather than serving as a defensive structure.
The Diyarbakır City Walls (Diyarbakır Şehir Surları), in the shape of a turret from a bird’s eye view, are crowned with 82 two-story bastions. These are mostly circular, although a few are polygonal and, in the sections facing Benusen and the Tigris Valley, are square. The lower levels of the bastions were used for storage, while the upper levels were used for fighting in times of war. Some of the castle’s important bastions are Evli Beden, Yedi Kardeş, Nur, Selçuklu, Fındık, Leblebikıran and Akrep. The Keçi Bastion (Keçi Burcu) offers magnificent views of Kırklar Mountain (Kırklar Dağı), the On Gözlü Bridge and Hevsel Gardens (Hevsel Bahçeleri).
There are four main gates for both the Inner Castle and the Outer Castle in Diyarbakır Walls. These gates are called Dağ (Mountain), Mardin, Yeni (New) and Urfa. The four gates were erected to protect the city from all kinds of dangers, as well as to ensure its connection with the outside world: the gates provided an effective means of controlling access to Diyarbakır, one of Northern Mesopotamia’s most prominent trade centres and a city of great military significance.
Diyarbakır Grand Mosque
The Grand Mosque (Ulu Cami), one of the oldest mosques in Anatolia, is the largest and most famous of the city’s historical mosques. Allegedly the structure – a church before the conquest of Diyarbakır by the Companions in 639, a synagogue before that, and a temple to a sun god even earlier – was built during the time of Moses.
The Grand Mosque contains the masjid belonging to the Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali sects; its walls bear 38 inscriptions. In the courtyard is the sundial built by Al-Jazari. There is also a Roman era underground cistern, the Mesudiye and the Zinciriye Madrasa (Mesudiye ve Zinciriye Medresesi). This large complex in Diyarbakır, a city of science and culture, is a witness to the city’s history.
The Prophet Süleyman Mosque and Tomb of the Companions
The mosque is known by two different names: The Prophet Süleyman Mosque (Hazreti Süleyman Cami) and the Kale Mosque (Kale Cami). It is a pilgrimage site for both locals and foreigners, as it houses the Tombs of the Prophet Süleyman and his Companions. The most important feature of the mosque, which is in İçkale, is that the conquest of Diyarbakır started from here, during the time of Prophet Ömer and the Mashhads. The Companions who were martyred during the conquest of Diyarbakır by Islamic armies, are entombed here. The mosque is a collection of buildings comprising the Tomb of the Companions (Sahabeler Türbesi), the prayer room (namazgâh), the square minaret and a series of fountains. The black basalt stone used in the construction give the mosque an imposing appearance.
Nebi (Prophet) Mosque
The Nebi Mosque (Nebi Cami), popularly known as the Prophet Mosque (Peygamber Cami), dates from the Akkoyunlu Period and is a century-old square-planned, single-domed mosque. It is a beautiful structure, with a created by the hadiths in its square-bodied minaret and alternating white and black stones.
İskender Paşa Mosque
The İskender Paşa Mosque (İskender Paşa Cami) was built by the 12th Ottoman governor of Diyarbakir, İskender Paşa, between 1551-1554. It is one of the most beautiful of Mimar Sinan’s works, attracting local and foreign researchers due to its inverted T-plan design. To the east of the mosque is the tomb of the family of İskender Paşa. Featuring a central dome and two semi-domes, it is the only tomb of its type in Diyarbakır and well worth seeing.
Melik Ahmet Paşa Mosque
The mosque was built between 1587-1591 by Diyarbakır Governor Melik Ahmet Paşa, on the street named after him. The name of the mosque appears in the Tuhfetü’l Mi’marin, a compilation of Mimar Sinan’s works. The main entrance of the mosque is particularly striking, featuring ornate stonework.
Sheikh Mutahhar (Sheikh Matar) Mosque Dört Ayaklı (Four Legged) Minaret
Built by Sultan Kasım in 1500, during the Akkoyunlu Period, the mosque was famous for its minaret. Called the “Four-Legged Minaret”, the square-shaped minaret stands on four massive columns – the only one of this type in Anatolia and therefore a centre of attention for both foreign and local tourists. The four columns symbolize four Islamic sects. Allegedly, anyone who passes under the columns seven times will have their wish granted.
Silvan Grand Mosque (Selahaddin Eyyubi Mosque)
Set in the district center of Silvan, this ornate, monumental mosque was erected in 1157, during the reign of Artukoğlu Necmeddin Alpi. Some additions were made to the mosque, which was repaired in 1227 during the Ayyubid period and renamed the Saladin Ayyubi (Selahaddin Eyyubi) Mosque (Selahaddin Eyyubi Cami). There is an inscription of Necmeddin Alpi (1152-1176) on the mosque’s dome, while inscriptions from the Abbasids are also found in various parts of the mosque.
Parlı Safa Mosque and Minaret
The 15th-century Parlı Safa Mosque (Parlı Safa Cami) is known for its richly decorated minaret, which features kufi and naskh scripts and delicate patterns, almost like lace, carved from the pedestal up to the cone. The mosque is called “parlı” fragrant due to its scent. The fragrance comes from a plant mixed into the materials used in the construction of the mosque and minaret. In earlier eras, scent was also applied to the minaret in preparation for Friday prayers. The minaret was then covered with a cloth, which was removed on Fridays.
The Fatih Paşa, Nasuh Paşa, Prophet Omer, Husrev Paşa, Behram Paşa and Ali Paşa mosques in Diyarbakır are also historical mosques with an important place in art and architectural history.
Mar Petyun Chaldean Church
Located near the Sheikh Muhattar Mosque (Şeyh Mutahhar Cami), this Chaldean Catholic Church (Keldani Katolik Kilisesi) is still in service. The church is part of a complex that includes lodging and three courtyards. Its restoration is ongoing.
Surp Giragos Armenian Church
In the Özdemir neighbourhood, this Orthodox Armenian Church is the largest in the Middle East and among the most important works in Armenian architectural history. The church has an imposing appearance and extends in an east-west direction. It will be opened to visitors after its restoration is completed.
The Latifiye Madrasa (Latifiye Medresesi), northeast of the Fatih Paşa Mosque (Fatih Paşa Cami), and the Ali Paşa Madrasa (Ali Paşa Medresesi) were used as “houses of the poor” for a period. They are among the historical madrasas in Diyarbakır that are open to visitors.
Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı House
Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı, one of Diyarbakır’s famous poets, was born in this house in the Cami-i Kebir neighbourhood in 1910. Many of his numerous works, now part of our literary history, were written in this house, such as the poem “Age 35”. The house, where the artist was born and spent his youth, is a splendid example of Diyarbakır’s residential architecture. It has a courtyard with a fountain and a garden, including rosebushes, that feels otherworldly. The house has served as a museum since 1973, exhibiting the poet’s letters and books, as well as some personal items and ethnographic artifacts.
Ahmet Arif Museum Library
The renowned poet Ahmet Arif, who was born in Diyarbakır in 1927, ranks among our literary notables with his poem “Hasretinden Prangalar Eskittim”. Arif’s books have seen the greatest number of publications in Türkiye and he is considered to be among those who write most lyrically in the Turkish language. In the Ahmet Arif Literature Museum Library (Ahmet Arif Edebiyat Müze Kütüphanesi), one of the most distinguished examples of Diyarbakır residential architecture, the poet’s personal belongings, handwritten poems and photographs are exhibited. In addition, there is a library.
Ziya Gökalp House
Ziya Gökalp was born in 1876 in his family home and he died in İstanbul in 1924. The house where the writer was born and spent his childhood years was opened as a museum in 1956.
The two-story house, now a museum, is a fine example of civil architecture in Diyarbakır. Built in 1806, it was constructed with basalt stone and consists of three wings and a central courtyard. The museum features exhibit of Gökalp’s personal items, and collections of his documents, photographs, books and letters. As well, ethnographic works of the region are exhibited.
Cemil Paşa Mansion
The mansion, one of the most beautiful examples of civil architecture in Diyarbakır, was built by Diyarbakır Governor Cemil Paşa in 1888. Covering an expansive area, the mansion consists of a haremlik (women’s section) and a selamlık (men’s section). The restored mansion now serves as the City Museum.
Hasan Paşa Inn
The inn’s construction was started between 1572 and 1575 by Vezirzade Hasan Paşa, son of the Sokullu Diyarbakir Governor of that period. However, Governor Hasan Paşa was appointed to another duty during this period, so the completion of the inn took place under Governor Osman Paşa. Simeon of Poland, who visited Diyarbakır in 1612 and toured the city, mentioned that “there are two large stables under the ground that can accommodate 500 horses and a large number of rooms”. Evliya Çelebi, who came to the city in the 17th century, noted that the Hasan Paşa Khan was “like a castle, a very firm and a solid structure”. Located in the city’s commercial center, the inn is the second largest caravanserai in Diyarbakır after the Deliller Inn (Deliller Hanı).
This inn was built in 1683 by Hanilioğlu Mahmut Çelebi and his sister, Atike Hatun. It is known that the leeches in the inn’s well were used by physicians of the period for healing purposes, thus the inn was named ‘sülüklü’ (with leeches). The inn’s upper floors were used as resting rooms and the lower as storage and accommodation for animals; the inn also served as the headquarters of the cavalry troops during the War of Independence. It now houses a public tourist attraction and a cafe.
Deliller Inn, Hüsrev Paşa Inn (Caravanserai Hotel)
Set near the Mardin Gate in the city wall, Deliller Inn (Deliller Hanı) is also known as Hüsrev Paşa Inn (Hüsrev Paşa Hanı). It was built in (1527-1528) by Deli Hüsrev Paşa, the second Ottoman governor of Diyarbakır. The building was called ‘deliller’ as it was where pilgrims and their guides met and stayed during pilgrimage periods. The wide area opposite the inn was called Pilgrim’s (Hacılar) Ruin.
The Great Courthouse (Büyük Adliye Sarayı), Corps Command Building (Kolordu Komutanlık Binası), Armory Building (Cephanelik Binası), İskender Paşa Mansion (İskender Paşa Konağı), Ağuludere Mansion (Ağuludere Konağı) and Kuşdili Mansion (Kuşdili Konağı) in Diyarbakır are also notable structures in the city.
Tomb of Sarı Saltuk
Opposite the Urfa Gate, the tomb’s building date is unknown. It is believed that its occupant is Sheikh Sadık Ali, also known as Sarı Saltuk, a member of the Gülşeniyye Sect. The tomb has an important place in folk beliefs.
Tomb of the Prophet Enosh
The Prophet Enosh was said to possess a deep knowledge of astronomy. According to an epigraph inside the tomb, introducing his genealogy, the Prophet Enosh was the third grandson of the Prophet Adam, the son of the Prophet Seth and the grandfather of the Prophet Noah. The tomb is in Otluca village, approximately 12 km from Ergani and is visited by numerous people.
Founded in the 1940s, Aşefçiler Bazaar (Aşefçiler Çarşısı) is in the square between Buğday Bazaar and Bakırcılar Bazaar, where the old Saman Bazaar is located, and set between the Balıkçılarbaşı and Deva (Camel) hammams. The market, set up in the early hours of the morning, sells various vegetables and fruits grown in the vineyards and gardens of the Tigris Valley.
Ziyaret Hill and the Prophet’s Graves
The graves of eight prophets lie in various regions of Eğil. The construction of the Tigris Dam flooded some of these graves, but those of Prophet Elyesa and Prophet Zülkifil were transferred in 1995 to Ziyaret Hill (Ziyaret Tepesi); Ziyaret Hill (Ziyaret Tepesi) was formerly known as Nebi Harun Hill (Nebi Harun Tepesi). It is a prominent point in the district and an important center for faith tourism. The gravesites of saints such as the Prophet Elyasa, the Prophet Zulkifil and Nebi Harun-i Asefi, Nebi Hallak, Nebi Harut, Nebi Zennun, Nebi Danyal, Nebi Hürmüz, Nebi Harun’s nephew and assistant Ruveym are in Eğil.
Eğil Assyrian Castle
Surrounded by deep valleys on three sides, the castle was built on a monolithic carved rock during the Assyrian period of BCE 3500-1260. In Volume II of “Church History” by John of Eğil (John of Ephesus) who was born in Eğil, it is stated that both the people and soldiers found shelter in Eğil Castle (Eğil Kalesi) during the wars between the Huns and Eastern Rome (Byzantine). In the west-front part of Eğil Castle is a figure of an Assyrian King and a lengthy cuneiform inscription.
Makam (Zülkifil) Mountain
There is a tomb belonging to the Prophet Zülkifil on the upper slope of Zülkifil Mountain (Zülkifil Dağı), which is about 5 km from Ergani. After 1958, various repairs were made in the tomb and the mosque; new sections were added, and it was brought to its current state. The Tomb of the Prophet Zülkifil, which has been granted funds in every period from the Artukid to the Republic, attracts many visitors, especially in the spring.
Çayönü Hill (Çayönü Tepesi), near Ergani, is one of the best examples of Neolithic agricultural village communities in Anatolia. Considered a “key settlement”, the site sheds light not only on the history of the region, but on the history of civilization. With finds dating from the BCE 10th millennium, Çayönü is an important archaeological site that documents the process of the transition of humankind from hunter/gatherer to a settled order based on grain/wheat cultivation and animal domestication, and thus constitutes an important step in today’s civilization. Research conducted in Çayönü in the 19th century indicated that settlement in the region began between BCE 7250-6750; excavations revealed circular houses and simple huts from the Neolithic Age. One of the notable structures discovered in the Çayönü excavations was a monumental building known as the “Saltaşlı Building”. It is about 10 meters wide and made of large limestone blocks whose surfaces have been smoothed and polished.
Ashab-ı Kehf and the Dakyanus Ruins
The world has many sacred caves that draw religious tourism. That there are Ashab-ı Kehf sites in 33 locations worldwide and four in Türkiye demonstrates its importance in both Islam and Christianity. In the story of the Ashab-i Kehf, in the Quran, the cave’s location is not clearly stated – only its features are described. According to some academics, the Ashab-ı Kehf cave in the Diyarbakır Lice district is one hundred percent compatible with the characteristics of the cave as noted in the Quran; and the information in the inscription on the cave’s wall also suggests that it is the genuine Ashab-ı Kehf cave.
These caves are unique in in Türkiye and the region for both their history and their natural beauty. The Assyrian kings Tiglat-pileser I and Salman Nassar III documented their sovereignty by commissioning reliefs and cuneiform inscriptions here due to the structure of the geographical region. Allegedly, the armies of Alexander the Great stayed here during his eastern expeditions.
These artificial caves made of rocks are in the Deran region in Diyarbakır, along with carved rock church where John of Eğil was trained and the Hilar and Hasuni Caves (Hilar ve Hasuni Mağaraları). In addition, the Sinek Creek Rock Caves Reliefs (Sinek Çayı Kaya Mağaraları Kabartmaları), about 7 km northwest of Çermik, are accessible via a challenging but pleasant walk.
Silvan Atatürk House
Set in the center of the Silvan district, the house is outside the walls, by the river. The building belongs to a Mr. Hatip, and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who was appointed to Silvan as the corps commander in 1916, resided in the mansion for six months, also using it as a headquarters. During his time here, Atatürk stopped the advance of the Russians into Diyarbakır and saved Bitlis and Muş from enemy occupation. During this conflict, 13,000 people were captured and 6,500 of our people were martyred. The Russians suffered great losses and were forced to retreat. Due to these achievements, Atatürk was awarded the Golden Sword Concession Medal. The mansion serves as a museum today.
Çermik Hot Springs
About 3 km from the Çermik district, the hot springs, also known as Melike Belkıs, have been in use since the Middle Ages and are open throughout the year. Çermik Hot Springs (Çermik Kaplıcaları) are the second worldwide in terms of quality, after the hot springs in Italy. There are two historical baths – Büyük Paşa and Küçük Paşa – in the district, along with numerous hotels and pensions around the hot springs. The Çermik Hot Springs are considered a healing source due to their rich elements; it is believed that the waters can be helpful in treating inflammatory rheumatisms, neuritis, polyneuritis, polio, chronic syndromes of gynaecological diseases, and upper respiratory tract infections. In the hot spring area, there is a Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Unit, part of Dicle University, with physical therapists and physiotherapists. In addition to the Municipal Operation Facilities, there is a thermal hotel with a Tourism Operation certificate.